KEYNOTES ABSTRACTS



Botany of the Shroud of Turin

Avinoam Danin

Department of Evolution, Systematics, and Ecology The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel 91904
Website: http://flora.huji.ac.il

Summary

Studying photographs of the Shroud, shot in different photographic techniques from 1898 through 2000 and observing the linen itself in 2000, I detected several plant images on the linen, near- and on the image of the Man of the Shroud. The images are faint but seen exactly in the same locations in all the photographs. This means that the plant images are not artifacts of a certain photographic procedure but a reality depicted by diverse methods. Three species used as geographic indicators signify that the only place on earth people could use fresh sample and put them on a dead-man's body is the area of Jerusalem to Hebron.
March-April is the time of the year when the whole assemblage of some 10 of the plants identified on the Shroud is in bloom.
Special attention was given to cover parts of the head of the Man of the Shroud with daisy-like "flowers" after their carrying stalks were removed. More than 300 flowering heads of Anthemis or Matricaria were orderly laid on the head, thus partially masking the 3D information derived from the body area to the linen of the Shroud.
Ferocious thorns of two trees were found near the man's head and a reed was laid alongside his body.
Fruits of Pistacia lentiscus projecting from a peduncle and additional hundreds of fruits assumed to be of Pistacia atlantica and/or Pistacia palaestina left their around 2,600 images on the entire Shroud. We do not know why people put these fruits there.

References
Danin, A. 2006. The nature of thorny plants, the images of which are observed on the Shroud of Turin. CSST Newsletter 10 (2): 1-4.
Danin, A. 2008. Botany of the Shroud of Turin, an addition concerning new information after the 1999 report. CSST Newsletter Insert 12 (3): 1-4.
Danin, A. 2010. Botany of the Shroud, the Story of Floral Images on the Shroud of Turin. Danin Publishing, Jerusalem. 104 pp.
Danin, A. and Guerra, H. 2008. L'uomo della Sindone. Un botanico ebreo identifica immagini di piante della Terra Santa sulla Sacra Sindone. Edizioni ART, Rome, 88 pp.
Danin, A., Whanger, A.D., Baruch, U. and Whanger, M. 1999. Flora of the Shroud of Turin. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 52 pp.


back to abstract list page




Can Contamination Be Detected on the Shroud to Explain Its 1988 Dating?

Mark Antonacci

Resurrection of the Shroud Foundation, 122 S. Central, Eureka, MO 63025, USA

Summary

The only scientific test result that is inconsistent with the authenticity of the Turin Shroud as the burial garment of Jesus Christ is its medieval dating result from 1988. This test result not only stands alone, but in stark contrast to an extensive amount of medical, scientific, archaeological and historical data. This extensive data not only consistently indicates the Turin Shroud is Jesus' actual burial garment, but that every element of the Passion, Crucifixion, Death, Burial and Resurrection of the historical Jesus Christ may have actually occurred exactly as these events are described in the Gospels.
Drawing on the author's [1] previous work, the conduct of the radiocarbon dating laboratories throughout the entire almost decade-long process to date the Turin Shroud is briefly reviewed. The Trondheim Protocol demonstrated that the new technology to date small samples was not sufficiently accurate with linen samples, and that the laboratories themselves were uncertain of its reliability with linen. Principally through its leader, Harry Gove, the carbon dating laboratories engaged in lengthy, even duplicitous, efforts to prevent scientific testing in 25 concurrent areas also designed to provide information regarding the Shroud's authenticity, age, origin, conservation and the cause of its image.
The Directors' lack of preparation and knowledge of the Shroud's previous test results, along with the elimination of concurrent testing and the involvement of other scientists possessing such knowledge, contributed to their failure to understand that historical or recorded events could have altered the cloth's carbon content or contaminated it [2]. The Directors' failure to also reveal their raw data, as they agreed several times to do, or to have the raw data analyzed before dates were ascribed and published, only postponed the subsequent discovery that the dates appear to follow a gradient [3], that the cloth is contaminated [4], and that the contamination cannot be removed by standard pretreatment cleaning processes, and could be present throughout the cloth [5].
A call for many forms of future testing is made in order to definitively determine whether the Turin Shroud has been repaired at the radiocarbon site; is contaminated; the type and cause of contamination and the cloth's actual age.

References
[1] Antonacci, M., The Resurrection of the Shroud, M. Evans and Co., Inc., New York, USA (2000)
[2] Phillips, T. S., Nature 337, 594 (1989)
[3] Walsh, B., Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, (1999)
[4] Riani M., Atkinson A., Crosilla F., Fanti G.: "A robust statistical review of the 1988 results," Interna- tional Workshop on the Scientific Approach to the Acheiropoietos Images, Frascati 2010
[5] Lind, A. C., Antonacci, M., Fanti, G., Elmore, D., Guthrie, J. M., Production of Radiocarbon by Neutron Radiation on Linen, International Workshop on the Scientific Approach to the Acheiropoietos Images, Frascati 2010


back to abstract list page





INVITED ABSTRACTS






How are the Acheiropoietos Images produced?

G. Fanti

University of Padua, Italy, www.dim.unipd.it/fanti/fanti-ingl.html

Summary

There are different images in the world declared as Acheiropoietos such as the Turin Shroud, the Tilma of Guadalupe, the Veil of Manoppello and the Padre Pio Handkerchief; all them reproduce some human features but the respective representations are quite different.
Once evidenced the extreme difficulty if not the impossibility for a human hand to reproduce some details reported in those images, some questions about the techniques involved in image reproduction arise.
For example: - How and why can we recognize that an image is of Acheiropoietos type? - Does a common technique for the construction of Acheiropoietos images exist? - Which are the points in common of those images? - Which are the differences?
The paper will try to ask, at least in part, to some of these questions presenting a comparison of the four images mentioned above.


back to abstract list page






Acheiropoietos images: the Tilma of Guadalupe

Josè Carlos Espriella Godinez

Member of the Centro mexicano de Sindonologìa

Summary

This presentation will start explaining how the Virgin of Guadalupe made possible that Mexico aroused as a united nation. After Mexico was conquered by the Spanish soldiers in 1521, the missioners also came with them, but it was very hard for the natives (Aztecs) to abandon their beliefs and accept the new religion: the Christianism.
One of the reasons for this was the bad example that the Spanish soldiers showed toward the natives and to the Spanish missionaries as well. At this point the Bishop Juan de Zumarraga decided to close the mission and to return to Spain "unless a miracle happen". The apparitions of the Virgin of Guadalupe took place in 1531, the Tilma was "painted" on front of the Bishop who certified the miracle and from then on, many Aztecs converted and accepted the baptism. So the mixture of both cultures was possible due to the Virgin of Guadalupe.
A scientific presentation of some peculiar characteristics of the Tilma will follow. For example on the eyes of the Virgin many human figures are visible; the vegetal fibers constituting the Tilma do not show signs of deterioration when it is well known that similar fibers degrade after few tens of years; a bomb exploded at a distance of few meters during an outrage without damaging the Tilma; it was spilled by accident with chlorhidric acid with slight damage; the positions of the stars in the Tilma's mantle is coherent with that of the time in which the "painting" formed; the temperature of the image of Our Lady was measured as that of a living body (36.6 ºC); a few years ago an image of a shining fetus appeared on the Lady's womb soon after a mass against abortion.
Photographs of the Tilma also in the UV will be presented, but the information in the spectro-photometric field is not exhaustive even if recent Raman analysis showed that the pigments of the image are composed of substances not known in nature. In addition it has been detected that the pigments do not adhere to the fibers but seem to be as "suspended" in the fabric.
These and other particularities will be discussed showing the extreme difficulty if not impossibility to reproduce such a particular image.


back to abstract list page






A critical compendium of Shroud body image formation hypotheses

G. Fanti

University of Padua, Italy, www.dim.unipd.it/fanti/fanti-ingl.html

Summary

From 1898 when S. Pia [1] published the first photographs of the TS (Turin Shroud) many scholars have proposed different hypotheses of TS body image formation without reaching a common agreement because all the proposed hypotheses do not allow a complete explanation[2]. The TS body image in fact has many peculiar characteristics that are, up to now, impossible to reproduce all together [3].
After a short presentation of the most important peculiar characteristics of the TS body image, the paper presents in a critical view the most important hypotheses of image formation such as those of diffusion [4], contact [5] and radiation [6, 7], explaining why they are not able to reproduce in a laboratory the whole characteristic of the TS body image. Also other hypotheses of minor importance such as the artist intervention [8, 9, 10] or the natural formation [11] are considered and discussed with the presentation of experimental results.
Finally it is presented a reliable hypothesis, in the author's view, based on corona discharge [12] and this hypothesis, both supported by theory and some experimental results, is compared with the somatic characteristics shown in the most important Relic of Christianity.
After a rigorous scientific discussion, a more general conclusion is reached also considering what it is reported in the Gospels.

References
[1] Zaccone G. M., ""L'immagine rivelata - 1898. Secondo Pia fotografa la Sindone".
[2] G. Fanti, R. Basso, "The Turin Shroud, Optical Research in the Past Present and Future", Publisher Nova Science Pub Inc. 03-2008.
[3] G. Fanti, J.A. Botella, F. Crosilla, F. Lattarulo, N. Svensson, A. Whanger, List of Evidences of the Turin Shroud, companion report.
[4] Rogers R. N., "Scientific method applied to the Shroud of Turin, a review", http://www.shroud.com/pdfs/rogers2.pdf
[5] Moroni M., "Sulla formazione 'naturale' e sulla strinatura accidentale dell'immagine sindonica, aloe e mirra fattori determinanti per un'impronta 'superficiale', verifica sperimentale" in: "La Sindone, indagini scientifiche", Atti del IV Congresso Nazionale di Studi sulla Sindone, Siracusa 1987, Edizioni Paoline, Cinisello Balsamo (MI) 1988, pp. 142-185.
[6] Jackson J. P., "Does the Shroud of Turin show us the Resurrection?", Biblia y Fè, 1998.
[7] G. Baldacchini, P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, G. Fanti: "Coloring Linens by Excimer Lasers to Simulate the Body Image of the Turin Shroud" Applied Optics Vol. 47, No. 9, 20 March 2008
[8] http://www.cicap.org/new/articolo.php?id=273973
[9] Allen N. P.L., "The Turin Shroud and the crystal lens", Empowerment Technologies Pty Ltd, Porth Elizabeth, South Africa 1998.
[10] http://www.dim.unipd.it/fanti/PresWILSON.pdf
[11] De Liso G., companion report.
[12] FANTI G: "Body Image Formation Hypotheses Based On Corona Discharge", Proc. of Shroud Science Group International Conference The Shroud Of Turin: Perspectives on A Multifaceted Enigma, Ohio State University, August 14-17, 2008, Libreria Progetto, Padova, Italy 2009.


back to abstract list page





Sub-micrometer coloration depth of linens by deep ultraviolet radiation

P. Di Lazzaro(1), G. Fanti(2), D. Murra(1), A. Santoni(1), G. Baldacchini(3)

1 ENEA, P.O.Box 65, 00044 Frascati, (Rome) Italy
2 University of Padua, Italy, www.dim.unipd.it/fanti/fanti-ingl.html
3 Via Quattrucci 246, 00046 Grottaferrata

Summary


We present the first very superficial yellow coloration of a linen cloth by using a burst of ultrashort pulses of deep ultraviolet light. We obtained locally a sub-micrometer depth of coloration in a critical working point: i.e., a small change in duration, or wavelength, or energy/power density of the light pulses is sufficient to change the penetration depth of the linen coloration by orders of magnitude.
We will address the interaction of deep ultraviolet light with linen fibrils, causing a photolytic degradation of cellulose and hemicelluloses that promotes the formation of cromophores with double bonds C=C ultimately leading to the yellowish coloration of the outermost part of the linen fibrils.
This result is of paramount importance in the search for the formation process of the body image (BI) on the Turin Shroud, as it shows that an ultrashort burst of deep ultraviolet light may accomplish one of the most-difficult-to-replicate characteristics of the BI, namely a 0,2-micrometer depth of coloration of the Shroud, corresponding to the thickness of the primary cell wall of the linen fibrils.
The characteristics of our deep ultraviolet colored linens (including latent image formation, fragility, hue of color, 3-D, quenching of ultraviolet fluorescence) will be compared with those of the BI.

References
[1] G. Baldacchini, P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, G. Fanti: "Colorazione di tessuti di lino con laser ad eccimeri e confronto con l'immagine sindonica" Rapporto Tecnico ENEA, RT/2006/70/FIM (2006).
[2] G. Baldacchini, P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, G. Fanti: "Coloring linens with excimer lasers to simulate the body image of the Turin Shroud" Applied Optics 47, 1278-1283 (2008).
[3] P. Di Lazzaro, G. Baldacchini, G. Fanti, D. Murra, A. Santoni: "Colouring fabrics with excimer lasers to simulate encoded images: the case of the Shroud of Turin", XVIII Int. Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, High-Power Lasers, edited by R. Vilar, Proc. SPIE vol. 7131 (2009) pp. 71311R-1 - 71311R-6.
[4] P. Di Lazzaro, G. Baldacchini, G. Fanti, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Santoni: "A physical hypothesis on the origin of the body image embedded into the Turin Shroud" Proceedings of the Int. Conf. on The Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma, edited by G. Fanti (Edizioni Libreria Progetto Padova 2009) pp. 116 - 125. ISBN 978-88-96477-03-08 01-12.
[5] P. Di Lazzaro, G. Fanti, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Santoni, G. Baldacchini: "Deep ultraviolet radiation simulates the Turin Shroud image" Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, accepted for publication (2010).


back to abstract list page





A Robust Statistical Analysis of the 1988 Turin Shroud Radiocarbon Dating Results

M. Riani(1), A.C. Atkinson(2), F. Crosilla(3), G. Fanti(4)

(1) University of Parma, Italy, www.riani.it
(2) The London School of Economics, London WC2A, 2AE, UK
(3) University of Udine, Italy
(4) University of Padua, Italy, www.dim.unipd.it/fanti/fanti-ingl.html

Summary


Based on the published results relative to the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the TS (Turin Shroud), a robust statistical analysis has been performed in order to test the reliability of these results.
The raw dates obtained from the 3 laboratories were disposed along the surface of the TS strip, cut in 1988, in 639679 different possible configurations and each configuration was tested using robust statistic methods.
The output of the procedure enables us to understand in a quantitative ways which are, among the 639679 possible configurations, those containing homogeneous data and which are those containing outliers. The p-values of the robust test statistics lead us to reject the null hypothesis that the ages measured by the three laboratories are homogeneous and suggest the presence of an important contamination in the 1988 TS samples that put serious doubts about the claim by Damon et al.: "...the quoted errors fully reflect all sources of error...".


back to abstract list page





On Besançon and Other Plausible Theories for the Shroud During the Missing Years

Daniel Scavone
History Professor Emeritus University of Southern Indiana, Evansville, IN 47712 USA

Summary

Besançon alone, of all the major theories of the Shroud's location during the "missing years" (1204-1354), claimed to have the Shroud of Jesus and has documents to support its possession. Three documents dated 1205-1208 place the Shroud in Athens with Burgundian knight Othon de la Roche. Other documents support Othon's transfer of the Shroud to his castle in Burgundy [1]. After 1354 the Shroud's history from Lirey to Turin is well established. Crucially, no other scenario for the missing years even mentions a shroud. In 1349 the Shroud in Besançon "disappeared" after a fire in the cathedral. All church records to that time were lost [2]. When J.J. Chifflet in 1624 and other Besançon historians tried to reconstruct the Shroud's history, they thus had no records of its arrival [3]. No Shroud is in the foundation records of Geoffroy I de Charny's Lirey church in the 1340s. About 1351-54 Geoffroy wed Jeanne de Vergy, descended from Othon, with hereditary right to ownership of the Shroud. She brought the Shroud, wrongly thought to be "lost" in the 1349 fire, to her marriage. The Besançon hypothesis thus explains how Geoffroy acquired it and why he remained silent [4]. At Lirey Jeanne commissioned an artist to fashion a copy (as in the d'Arcis Memorandum). This copy was sent to Besançon in 1377 or 1378. The bishop who "proved" it was the return of the original by placing it on a corpse and reviving it was Guillaume de Vergy, related to Jeanne [5]. This is suspicious as a possible family conspiracy. Sindonologists have spent pages in refuting this painted copy [6]. But they have not refuted Besançon's original, which ca. 1354 had gone to Lirey with Jeanne. A copy of Othon's tombstone and a chest which once contained the Shroud, both still found in Othon's Chateau de Ray-sur-Saône, reinforce my case [7]. Besançon alone has documents showing an awareness of the Shroud in its lost 150 years. And it explains in the most economical way what happened to the Shroud after Robert de Clari said in 1203 that he saw it in the Blachernes Palace in Constantinople and afterwards "nobody knew what happened to it." A path of possession is thus documented for the Shroud from Constantinople to Geoffroy de Charny.

References
[1] Antoine Legrand: "Du nouveau pour le Suaire de Turin: une letter de l'empereur Alexis V," Historia, 106-108 (Dec. 1982). Pasquale Rinaldi: "Un documento probante sulla localizzazione in Atene della Santa Sindone dopo il sacheggio di Costantinopoli" in L. Coppini and F. Cavazzuti, eds., La Sindone, scienza e fede, Bologna: Editrice CLUEB, 109-113 (1983). Paul Eduard Riant: Exuviae Sacrae Constantinopolitanae, 2 vols., Paris: Ernest Leroux, vol. I, cil and clxiii, and vol. II, 233f. (1878).
[2] Jules Gauthier: Collection des Inventaires sommaires des Archives Departmentales anterieures a 1790, Departement du Doubs, Archives Ecclesiastiques, iv (no date, but c. 1901).
[3] J. J. Chifflet: De Linteis Sepulchralibus Christi Servatoris Crisis Historic, Antwerp, passim (1624).
[4] Noguier de Malijay: Le Saint-Suaire de Turin, Paris: Spes, 9 (1929).
[5] Chifflet: op.cit.passim.
[6] E.g., Pere Paul de Gail: Histoire religieuse du linceul du Christ, Paris: Editions France-Empire, 167-226 (1973). Dorothy Crispino: "Doubts Along the Doubs," Shroud Spectrum International, vol. 14, 10-24 (March 1985). G. M. Zaccone: "Sindone di Torino e sindone di Besançon, appunti per una ricerca parallela," Sindon, N.S., vol. 9-10, 107-116 (1997).
[7] Michel Bergeret: "Le Trou Historique: 1204-1357," paper presented at the C.I.E.L.T. Symposium in Paris in 1993. Alessandro Piana: Sindone: gli Anni Perduti, Milano: Sugarco Edizioni, ch. 6 (2007).


back to abstract list page





Implications of Akeldama Shroud Fragments for the Turin Shroud

Diana Fulbright
Director of Research, Shroud of Turin Center
12829 River Road, Richmond, VA, 23138, USA
© Diana Fulbright, 2010. All rights reserved.

Summary

This presentation comprises two topics, the first is a discussion on the recent publication of the analysis of first-century burial cloths discovered in Jerusalem in the Spring of 2000, and the second is a brief note about the Shroud given to the servant of the priest in the Gospel of the Hebrews, according to Jerome.
Recent publication of the molecular analysis of first-century burial cloths discovered in Jerusalem in the Spring of 2000 has received enormous media attention, both in print and on the web. The sensational nature of the coverage has stemmed less from the scientific analysis than from specious comparison with the Shroud of Turin. The Jerusalem shroud consists of two pieces, naÔvely said to disprove the authenticity of the Turin Shroud. Additionally, the simple weave of the Jerusalem burial cloths is claimed as further proof that the Turin Shroud, with its finer twill weave, cannot be genuine.
The assumption that the newly discovered burial cloths typify those used in Jerusalem during the first century is over-reaching. Any attempt to extrapolate from this shroud alone, out of no doubt many thousands that did not survive, that all must have been of two pieces, and all must have shared the same type of weave, and therefore any shroud differing from that one cannot be authentic, is statistically invalid.
The research article, "Molecular Exploration of the First-Century Tomb of the Shroud in Akeldama, Jerusalem," in fact never refers to the Shroud of Turin. Moreover, a shroud discovered in the Judean desert is of one piece, like the Turin Shroud, and another, much older, is a linen cloth seven meters in length.
The Shroud connection was hyped to the media by one of the article's co-authors, Professor Shimon Gibson, Adjunct Professor at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and Senior Research Fellow at the W.F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research.. Gibson, who supervised the excavation, was interviewed by National Geographic News, which published a story mistakenly attributing the supposed inauthenticity of the Turin Shroud to the scientific research report: The NGN story subsequently appeared in numerous other media.
While Gibson emphasized that no other first-century shroud has been discovered in Jerusalem, he omitted evidence from the Judean Desert, where linen, wool and leather shrouds have been excavated.
According to Jerome, in his De Viris Illustribus 2, the Gospel of the Hebrews contains the following curious statement: "And when the Lord had given the linen cloth to the servant of the priest, he went to James and appeared to him." The "linen cloth" is quite credibly understood to refer to the Shroud now in Turin.
Inasmuch as it would appear most unlikely that Jesus would have presented his shroud to the priest of the Jerusalem temple through his servant or otherwise, a number of emendations to the text have been suggested to support a restoration to an alternate reading: "to the servant of Peter." We show that this reading is untenable.
This passage as "restored" is the basis of the argument that the Shroud was taken to Antioch.


back to abstract list page





Medical and Forensic Aspects of the Man Depicted on the Shroud of Turin

Niels Svensson, M.D.
Kalvemosevej 4, DK-4930 Maribo, Denmark

Summary

On the Shroud of Turin is depicted a faint image of a corpse of a naked, crucified man. In addition, many bloodstains of different origin, size, form and flow are observed. For more than a century researchers of different branches of science, including physicians, have examined this body image and bloodshed. Direct observation on the cloth, blood sample analyses, Shroud photo scrutinizing, experiments with bodies and living persons fixed on crosses have let to important physiological results relating to the sufferings and cause of death of the man on the Shroud. However, the interpretation of results and subsequent conclusions in some cases point in different directions.
This paper endeavours to clarify selected Shroud problems by help of medical disciplines within traumatology, neurology and forensic medicine:
Traumata of the nose, back and right knee are pointed out in order to describe the injuries upon an empirical background. The sequelae of flogging the thorax are investigated in relation to the side wound.
Under which conditions could the specific "ε" - shaped blood flow on the forehead have been formed?
The red color of the Shroud blood has been explained in chemical and physical terms. These explanations are checked by experiments.
Neurologic sequelae of a nail in the hand wrist: a denervated or stimulated motor nerve?
To illustrate standpoints the author has done experiments in his medical laboratory.


back to abstract list page





The Promise (and Threat) of the Shroud

Phillip H. Wiebe, Ph.D.
Professor of Philosophy, Trinity Western University
7600 Glover Road, Langley, British Columbia, Canada V2Y 1Y1

Summary

In a paper published shortly before Richard Rorty's death (with Gianni Vattimo) he wrote that "empirical evidence is irrelevant to talk about God," remarking that this viewpoint, advanced by both David Hume and Immanuel Kant, applies equally to theism and atheism. This remark expresses the general sentiment about God and religion found in the Academy (whether modern or postmodern), which contrasts with views hinted at, privately held, or occasionally voiced by some academicians who wonder whether the Shroud could be evidentially relevant to the Christian doctrine of the Resurrection.
In my paper I sketch an approach by which the rationality (or irrationality) of religion might be assessed using evidence (contra Rorty et al). I isolate the special forms of evidence that would be needed to argue that a once-dead person has come back to life, and examine the recent claims of Shroud researchers (e.g., John Jackson, August Accetta, and Thaddeus Trenn ) who conjecture that the body (mass) of a man who once lay in the Shroud is implicated in its unique image. I show how this conjecture poses a new question about evidence for the Resurrection, and show also that the Shroud either enhances the evidence for the Resurrection or surprisingly undermines it - the promise or the threat. I conclude by advancing a conjecture of my own concerning a possible difference between evidence in science and evidence in religion.

References
1 Richard Rorty and Gianni Vattimo, The Future of Religion. Edited by Santiago Zabala. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004, p. 33.
2 Jackson, John P. "An Unconventional Hypothesis to Explain all Image Characteristics Found on the Shroud Image." In Symposium Proceedings: History, Science, Theology and the Shroud, St. Louis, Missouri, June 22-23, 1991. Edited by Aram Berard. Amarillo, Texas: Privately published, 1991.
3 Accetta, August, et. al., "Nuclear Medicine and its Relevance to the Shroud of Turin," Shroud of Turin International Research Conference, June 18-20, 1999, Mary Mother of the Church Abbey, Richmond, Virginia. Website: http://www.shroud.com/pdfs/accett2.pdf (September 25, 2001).
4 Trenn, Thaddeus, "The Shroud of Turin: Resetting the Carbon-14 Clock," n Facets of Faith and Science. Volume 3: The Role of Beliefs in the Natural Sciences, pp. 119-33. Edited by Jitse M. van der Meer. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1996; "The Shroud of Turin: A Parable for Modern Times?" Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 9 (1997): 121-40.


back to abstract list page





The Sudarium of Oviedo and the Shroud of Turin. A question of authenticity

Prof. Jose Luis Fernandez Sanchez
ETSII-Madrid Technical University (UPM), Josè Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

Summary

The Shroud of Turin is among the most known, controversial and enigmatic of the archeological artifacts. It shows the image of a tortured man. Various marks resembling wounds are visible on the body image. Areas having the characteristics of scorch marks and water marks are also identified. Scientific research of the Shroud of Turin began in 1900 at the Sorbonne University under the direction of professor Yves Delage, professor of comparative anatomy. Additional tests have been performed on the Shroud by diverse scientific teams from Italy, USA and other. During the 1978 test program, members of STURP (Shroud of Turin Research Project) performed photographic imaging: visible, UV, and IR spectroscopy; IR termography; x-ray fluorescence analysis; and x-radiographic imaging. They also collected microscopic samples for chemical testing. Details of these tests with results can be found elsewhere [2].
The Sudarium of Oviedo, kept at the Cathedral of Oviedo, north of Spain, is less known. The Sudarium is a small bloodstained piece of linen (84 x 53 cm), but no image is shown in it. The Sudarium's existence and presence in Oviedo is well attested since the eighth century and in Spain since the seventh century. Before these dates the location of the cloth is less certain [1]. Scientific research of the Sudarium began in the mid 1960's by Monsignor Giulio Ricci. The Investigation Team from the Spanish Centre for Sindonology studied the Sudarium in Oviedo for the first time in November 1989 and several times in the nineties. Apart from studying the cloth as it appears to the naked eye, photographs were taken from various angles and distances, and with normal light as well as ultraviolet and infrared light. Samples of dust and pollen were taken, as well as small samples of the cloth itself. Results of these studies and tests can be found elsewhere [3]. The Sudarium of Oviedo is also as controversial and enigmatic as the Shroud of Turin because many people believe both clothes are relics related to Jesus of Nazareth Passion and death.
The approach for the question of authenticity is a complex issue that should be supported by a combination of medical and scientific analysis, and the evidence from anthropology, archeology and history. This approach may be divided into three stages:
1. Establish that each cloth is a genuine burial cloth recovered from a grave or removed from a corpse.
2. Determine both clothes as belonging to a particular corpse.
3. Establish an association of both clothes with the historical person of Jesus of Nazareth.
The scope of this presentation is to describe how past research of both clothes, and particularly the research related to the Sudarium of Oviedo, may contribute to give answers related to the problems issued in stage 1, and partially in stage 2 of the approach proposed above, but are inconclusive for establishing the association of both clothes with the historical person of Jesus of Nazareth, that is stage 3.
The comparative and multidisciplinary study of both clothes is a requirement for obtaining stage 3 results. Particularly, the use of new digital image processing techniques, quantitative color analysis and stains images matching algorithms can contribute to the realization of stage 3 of the authenticity approach.

References
[1] M. Guscin. The Oviedo Cloth. The Lutterwoth Press.128pages. 1998.
[2] E.J. Jumper, A.D. Adler, J.P. Jackson, S.F. Pellicori, J.H. Heller and J.R. Druzik. A Comprehensive
[3] J.M. Rodrìguez Almenar. El Sudario de Oviedo. Ediciones Universidad de Navarra SA. 134 pages. 2000


back to abstract list page