SHROUD IMAGE FORMATION



Particle Radiation from the Body

Mark Antonacci (1), Arthur C. Lind (2)

(1) Resurrection of the Shroud Foundation, 122 S. Central, Eureka, MO 63025, USA
(2) Lind Scientific, Inc., 15450 Country Mill Ct, Chesterfield, MO 63017, USA


Summary

An initial review of the many similar properties of the Shroud's body images and its light scorch marks give the first indication that radiation caused its body images. Experiments with radiation and cellulose are shown to also duplicate many chemical and physical properties and spectral reflectance curves of the Shroud's body image. Series of scientific experiments are summarized demonstrating that low temperature or non-thermal radiation will duplicate 29 key collectively unprecedented properties and characteristics found throughout the Shroud's frontal and dorsal body images at both microscopic and macroscopic levels. While some properties can be duplicated by other techniques, some features can only be duplicated by radiation, and only radiation can duplicate all of them.
Numerous scientific experiments and analyses are summarized showing that low penetrating radiation was responsible for the body images on the Shroud. Although Rinaudo has not demonstrated "ghost" patterns, image striations, unchanged crystalline structure or colorless interiors of image fibers, his experiments on the effects of protons and neutrons on linen are noted [1]. His experiments reproduced additional probable Shroud body image features such as conjugated carbonyls, straw-yellow coloration after aging, and coloration extraction by diimide.
Extensive medical, pathological and archaeological evidence clearly indicates that whole human blood flowed from a human male body wrapped within the Shroud that contained more than 100 blood marks from numerous wounds inflicted by various instruments at different times resulting in his ultimate death by crucifixion. Four reasons are provided why this particular body is necessarily the source of the radiation. It is also shown that only radiation from the body can account for all of the above features at their locations found on the Shroud.
Drawing on the author's [2] previous work and new experiments [3], this paper explains that if particle radiation was momentarily released from the dead body of the man in the Shroud, it would refute and explain the cloth's 1988 radiocarbon date, and account for the excellent condition of the cloth. It would further explain how all of the Shroud's body image features and its blood marks were encoded. No method has ever explained or accounted for all of these characteristics known to exist on the Shroud. This event would also explain corollary incidents described in the Gospels, but never accounted for previously.

References
[1] Rinaudo, J., Third International Congress on the Shroud of Turin (1998)
[2] Antonacci, M., The Resurrection of the Shroud, M. Evans and Co., Inc., New York, USA (2000)
[3] Lind, A. C., Antonacci, M., Fanti, G., Elmore, D., Guthrie, J. M., Production of Radiocarbon by Neutron Radiation on Linen, Int. Workshop on the Scientific Approach to the Acheiropoietos Images, Frascati 2010
[4] Moroni, M., Barbesino, F. and Bettinelli, M., Third International Congress on the Shroud of Turin, (1998)


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Shroud-like experimental image formation during natural electrostatic discharges

Giovanna de Liso

Via Servera 16, CAP 10066 Torre Pellice (Torino), Italy


Summary

It has been experimentally investigated whether images of objects laying between the two folds of a linen cloth of characteristics similar to those of the Shroud, or of a cotton cloth, smeared with different solutions (aloe, myrrh, blood in water/oil solution), and suitably placed between two horizontal gneiss rock layers in an underground cellar, partly excavated in ferromagnetic rocks, could form naturally before or during an earthquake.
The experiments have been carried out in a slightly seismic area in Western Piedmont (Northern Italy) during the years 1999-2009. Seismic radioactive, electromagnetic and magnetic precursory were monitored. The measures obtained, together with the observation of unusual phenomena in animals and plants, yielded the necessary indications that a seismic activity was about to take place.
The experiments focused also on the study of the relations between the thickness of a linen cloth, its capacity to absorb aloe and myrrh in water or oil solution, either together or separately, the way the cloth absorbs these solutions and the image formation by objects of different kind (ranging from objects of inanimate origin, such as plastic pieces, to wood pieces or the bodies of dead animals) directly in touch with the cloth, during the seismic events that occurred in the period of observation.
In about one hundred experiments carried out, images, with a 3D character and other Turin Shroud peculiarities, were observed only as the outcome of experiments performed during seismic activity. The experimental results therefore strongly support the idea of a connection between seismic activity, ambiental ionization and image formation under the circumstances described, probably for "electrostatic discharge".

References
De Liso G., Verifica sperimentale della formazione di immagini su teli di lino trattati con aloe e mirra in concomitanza di terremoti, in "Sindon N.S." Quad. 14, dicembre 2000, pp 125-130.
De Liso G., Verifica sperimentale della formazione di immagini su teli di lino trattati con aloe e mirra in concomitanza di sismi, in "IV Symposium Scientifique International" du CIELT, Parigi, 25-26 aprile2002.
Fanti G., La Sindone, una sfida alla scienza moderna, Ed. Aracne, Roma, 2008.
Fanti G., La Sindone rinnovata, misteri e certezze, Progetto Editoriale Mariano, Vigodarzere (PD), 2003.


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Turin Shroud electrostatic imaging?

Francesco Lattarulo

Politecnico di Bari, via Orabona, 4 - 70125 Bari (Italy)


Summary

The paper is aimed at gaining some new insight into the debated question of the undistorted human image impressed on the Turin linen [1]. Some electrostatic, optical, material aging and geophysical properties are simultaneously involved in an interdisciplinary and self-consistent theoretical framework. The basic working hypothesis adopted is that the figure is the substantial result of surface electrostatic discharge (ESD, often referred to as partial discharge in gases, or corona effect) triggered by a seismoelectric field externally impinging on the human body. After introducing detailed physicochemical considerations derived from the realm of electrotechnology also applied to the cellulose aging by ESD, the report deals with the mechanism of the undistorted inner reproduction on the Shroud. The "list of facts" compiled in a companion report [2] is carefully taken into account and an approximate correspondence between surface electric-field distribution law and Lambert's optical law is discussed. Reproducing stable electrostatic "fingerprints" of conducting surfaces by contact with sensitive films is a straightforward practice whose degree of sophistication nowadays attainable gives rise to a larger number of applications. The imaging agent proportional to the surface electric field is a vivid ESD which especially manifests on the overstressed protrusions. When the surface is rough enough to exhibit a Lambertian-like diffuse reflection, the surface electric field happens to incidentally assume a structure all but similar to that of the electrostatic field on the corresponding smooth conductor. Even though any analogy between electrostatic and optical behaviors is far from being sustainable, allowance could be made for some prominent luminance and electrostatic properties which manifest almost identical when the respective surface patterns are superimposed. In other words, radiance and electrostatic models turn out to be non-analogous but practically interchangeable theoretical resources whenever the relevant errors are both within the uncertainty affecting some classes of forward and inverse problems. This could, for example, be the case when objects may be rendered with middling image quality or when an available low-quality chiaroscuro is employed for object reconstruction. By the way, a remarkable subsidiary inference, especially relevant to the present investigation involving the Turin Shroud, is that truly electrostatic images could erroneously be ascribed to an unlikely radiation, irrespective of its own nature (luminous or not).

References
[1] G. Fanti, F. Lattarulo, O. Scheuerman: The Third Dallas Int. Conf. On the Shroud of Turin, Dallas, Texas, (2005).
[2] G. Fanti, J.A. Botella, F. Crosilla, F. Lattarulo, N. Svensson, A. Whanger, List of Evidences of the Turin Shroud, companion report.


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A Scientific Comparison between the Turin Shroud and the First Handmade Whole Copy

Giulio Fanti (1), Thibault Heimburger (2)

(1) University of Padua, Italy, www.dim.unipd.it/fanti
(2) MD, Saint-Denis, France


Summary

It is well known that the image seen on the Turin Shroud has been thoroughly studied, mainly during and after the 1978 STURP examination [1]. The main undisputable facts are known and summarized [2]. Meanwhile, a number of experiments were carried on in order to try to reproduce a "Shroud-like" image. Up to now, nobody was able to reproduce all the fundamental properties of the image. In addition, most of these pseudo-Shroud images were limited to the face.
Recently, an Italian scientist, Luigi Garlaschelli [3], provided for the first time a copy of the whole image, front and back, which is the best "Shroud-like" image ever done. According to [3], the artist used a dry powder (iron oxide pigment) and the image seen on the Turin Shroud was produced early by the discoloration of the fibers by the acidic impurities which are supposed to be associated with the earthy iron oxides used, even if the pigments themselves were not involved.
In the present paper, we will describe Garlaschelli's hypothesis and experiments.
Garlaschelli also claimed that his "Shroud-Like" image matches the Shroud image in most of its main properties. We will demonstrate that it is true only in part because some of the main properties are not reproduced.
Starting from the available data and photographs, we will show that the image in discussion does not match the main fundamental properties of the Shroud image [2], in particular at thread and fiber level but also at macroscopic level. The problem of the blood stains will also be discussed.
In conclusion, thanks to Garlaschelli, it is possible to show why and how, because of fundamental "details", the image of the Turin Shroud is up to now not reproducible and still remains an unexplainable Object.

References
[1] JUMPER et al.., "A comprehensive examination of the various stains and images on the Shroud of Turin", Archaeological Chemistry III, ACS Advances in Chemistry nº 205, Washington D.C., 1984, pp. 447-476.
[2] G. Fanti, J.A. Botella, F. Crosilla, F. Lattarulo, N. Svensson, A. Whanger, List of Evidences of the Turin Shroud, companion report.
[3] http://www.cicap.org/new/articolo.php?id=273973


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Scientific observables and inferences applicable to the Shroud of Turin

Giulio Fanti (1), Jose A. Botella (2), Fabio Crosilla (3), Francesco Lattarulo (4),
Niels Svensson (5), Raymond Schneider (6), Alan Whanger (7)


(1) University of Padua, Italy, www.dim.unipd.it/fanti
(2) Universität Regensburg Lehrstuhl für Entwicklungsbiologie.
(3) University of Udine via Cotonificio 114 Udine Italy
(4) Politecnico di Bari - via Orabona, 4 - 70125 Bari
(5) Maribo Denmark
(6) Bridgewater College, VA USA
(7) M. D. Council for Study of the Shroud of Turin, www.shroudcouncil.org

Summary

A wide ranging discussion on the Shroud Science Group has been pursued over approximately the past five years with the objective of collecting the critical observations about the Shroud of Turin into a single compact paper with particular attention to the question of image formation. This work is an improvement of a previous paper presented in 2005 [1].
The current paper classifies the scientific observations of the Shroud of Turin into categories to aid scientific discussion about the problem of body image formation. Many hypotheses about the image formation process have been proposed, but none has explained all the facts detected on the Shroud. This paper will be helpful for future researchers who wish to study the image formation process and propose new hypotheses.
Facts directly related to the Turin Shroud are concisely presented, divided in two general categories: 1) Type A, which are direct observables, and 2) Type B, which are inferences based on direct observations and specific Turin Shroud studies. In the interest of completeness other facts and observations proposed by researchers that are not as universally accepted are reported.

References
[1] Fanti G., Schwortz B., Botella J.A., Crosilla F., Lattarulo F., Svensson N., Schneider R., Whanger A. et al., Evidences for Testing Hypotheses about the Body Image Formation of The Turin Shroud, III Dallas Int. Conf. Shroud of Turin: Dallas, Texas, Sep. 8-11, 2005, http://www.shroud.com/pdfs/doclist.pdf


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